Glossary of Terms

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AP
  Abbreviation for artist's proof.
Artist's proof
  Traditionally, proofs pulled by the artist over and beyond the regular numbered edition, reserved for the artist's use. Now often used to designate any proofs pulled over and beyond the regular edition, whether printed by the artist or by his printer, but reserved for the artist's use.
BAT proof
  Abbreviation for the French term "bon à tirer," literally meaning "good to pull," i.e., "print." Traditionally, it represents a particular example of the quality which the printer is to duplicate. At Impressions Workshop the tradition of achieving a BAT by the printer is strictly followed, and this proof is used throughout the edition printing as the standard to which all edition prints are compared and judged. With intaglio printing the artist usually supplies an artist's proof as a guide to the printer in achieving the BAT. Frequently the artist is present on this occasion, consulting with the printer. Impressions has long made it its practice to arrange for the BAT to become the property of the printer—thus honoring the vital relationship between artist and printer.
Cancellation proof
  A proof taken from a cancelled plate to document the act of cancellation.
Chop mark
  Chops are embossed or printed designs sometimes used by artists, printers, publishers, and collectors to mark and authenticate their relationship to a work.
Collaborator's Portfolio
  In the case of THE JOLLY CORNER suite (Cat. Nos. 62-82) eight portfolios were reserved for those who made possible the publication of the suite.
Direct photographic transfer
  The transfer of a photographic image directly onto a photosensitized plate, a technique seldom used by Milton who generally draws his images.
Impressions Workshop proofs
  Generally two proofs, pulled over and beyond the regular edition, which are supplied to the Workshop for archival and exhibition purposes, and which are very clearly not for sale.
Number of plates
  Although most of Milton's prints are from a single plate, there are examples of his use of two and three separate plates to create a single image.
Photosensitive-ground etching
  See Milton's essay "Notes on My Techniques of Drawing and Plate Making."
Plate material
  All printing plates are copper or zinc. For the larger editions the copper plates have been steel faced (with the exception of one that was nickel plated) to protect the image from wear.
Plate size
  Dimensions of the metal plate, rather than image size, have been given because the printed image may not be consistent in measurement depending on types of paper used. Since the printing is carried out on dampened paper, there is always a variable shrinkage factor (depending on the paper used) as the prints dry. Dimensions are given in inches, height preceding width.
Preferred Portfolio Edition
  A term used only with THE JOLLY CORNER suite (Cat. Nos. 62-82). Refer to "The Jolly Corner suite - Edition Notes."
Presentation proof
  Proofs pulled over and beyond the regular numbered edition which are distributed at the artist's discretion.
Principal Portfolio Edition
  See notation above for Preferred Portfolio Edition.
Printer
 

Milton has printed all preliminary proofs and most published editions except for those that bear the chop mark of another printer. These exceptions comprise JULIE AT WINDOW (Cat. No. 39) printed by Joan Farrar; THE JOLLY CORNER suite (Cat. Nos. 62-82) printed by Robert E. Townsend and Gretchen Ewert; and Cat. Nos. 89-97 printed by Robert E. Townsend. In the case of WINTERSCAPE VI, (Cat. No. 40) the printer was Andersen Lamb of Brooklyn, N.Y. See "Peter Milton: Complete Prints 1960-1996" for earlier prints which will have their editions completed by Townsend.

Printer's proof
  An alternative term for the BAT proof pulled by the printer in those instances where the artist prefers to refer to the artist's proof which has been supplied as the ultimate BAT. In addition, the term may be used to describe a presentation print given to the printer. Milton has occasionally used this term to label extra proofs by the printer that were not of BAT quality.
Published Edition
  This is the regular edition of each print, numbered in arabic numerals. There are numerous instances among Milton's earlier prints where an edition limit was projected but never achieved. Some of these editions will be completed by Master Printer Robert E. Townsend. In other cases, there are no published editions, only preliminary proofs, because a satisfactory image was not achieved, or because work on the plate was halted for other reasons.
Publisher
  Milton has published all of his own work with the exception of WINTERSCAPE VI, (Cat. No. 40) THE JOLLY CORNER suite, (Cat. Nos. 62-82) and Special Impressions Workshop Editions (see below). WINTERSCAPE VI (Cat. No. 40) was published by Associated American Artists, New York City. THE JOLLY CORNER suite (Cat. Nos. 62-82) was published by Aquarius Press, Baltimore, Md.
Replacement proofs
  These proofs, pulled over and above the published edition, are unnumbered duplicates intended to replace prints which may become damaged in shipment, handling, etc.
Secondary title
  A few prints have received differing titles. The correct version is given after the entry for title.
Separate Edition
  A term used only with THE JOLLY CORNER suite (Cat. Nos. 62-82) to designate the edition of the suite on Arches Buff paper, with wider margins, separately numbered 1/90-90/90.
Series
  Milton conceives of some of his prints as part of a series and numbers them as such. Other similar titles are not considered as parts of series.
Special Impressions Workshop Edition
  This term describes small editions of some of Milton's recent prints (Cat. Nos. 91-97) numbered in Roman numerals, published and distributed by Impressions Workshop.
St.P., or S.P., or ST.PR.
  Abbreviation for State Proof.
State Proofs
  These are impressions taken during the development of an image in the copper plate. Any physical change in a plate normally constitutes a change of state. Milton has generally numbered the proofs he has taken of each state. In Milton's case, there are often changes within the different proofs of a given state proof, but they are too minute to warrant a new state designation. These proofs usually represent an effort to get a very specific facial expression. This is one reason why he may pull so many proofs within a state. It is unusual for an artist to print as many state proofs as Milton has produced. Milton himself is a superb printer and meticulous craftsman, and when he was finally faced with turning his edition printing over to a professional printer, his native caution prompted him to pull ample numbers of preliminary proofs. The latter served to insure the existence of the original image as it was intended to be.
Total numbers of prints
  It is often difficult to determine the total number of existing impressions of any single print unless the edition is carefully controlled and the documentation made public. Because of the complexity of the various trial and state proof series of Milton's work, absolute numerical accuracy cannot be assured though every effort has been made to achieve this end.
Trial proof
  Trial proofs are taken for various reasons, such as to test various inks, papers, makeready, and the press. Often they are discarded if the test produces unsatisfactory results.

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